1. Low-grade inflammation, diet composition and health: current research evidence and its translation:

  2. Mullington JM, Simpson NS, Meier-Ewert HK, Haack M. Sleep Loss and Inflammation. Best practice & research Clinical endocrinology & metabolism. 2010;24(5):775-784. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2010.08.014.
  3. Budhiraja R, Roth T, Hudgel DW, Budhiraja P, Drake CL. Prevalence and Polysomnographic Correlates of Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Disorders. Sleep. 2011;34(7):859-867. doi:10.5665/SLEEP.1114.
  4. Osteoarthritis and Sleep:
  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Sleep:
  6. Risk of Autoimmune Disease in Adults with Chronic Insomnia Requiring Sleep-Inducing Pills: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

Camel Milk

  1. Camel Milk as a Potential Therapy as an Antioxidant in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD):
  2. 7562
  3. therapeutic-effects-of-camel-milk-in-the-treatment-of-type- diabetes-mellitus-2167-7956.1000118.php?aid=32649


  1. Budziszewska B, Zając A, Basta-Kaim A, Leśkiewicz M, et al.  Effects of neurosteroids on the human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene.Pharmacol Rep. 2010 Nov-Dec;62(6):1030-40.
  2. Lennartsson AK1, Theorell T, Kushnir MM, Bergquist J, Jonsdottir IH.Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013 Sep;38(9):1650-7. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.01.010. Epub 2013 Feb 18.
  3. Federico A, Dallio M, DI Fabio G, Zarrelli A. Silybin-Phosphatidylcholine Complex Protects Human Gastric and Liver Cells from Oxidative Stress.In Vivo. 2015 Sep-Oct;29(5):569-75.
  4. Kanno T, Jin Y, Nishizaki T. DL-/PO-phosphatidylcholine restores restraint stress-induced depression-related behaviors and spatial memory impairment.Behav Pharmacol. 2014 Sep;25(5-6):575-81. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000063.
  5. Hellhammer J, Vogt D, Franz N, Freitas U, Rutenberg D. A soy-based phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) normalizes the stress reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis in chronically stressed male subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Jul 31;13:121. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-13-121.
  6. Nadaoka I, Watanabe K, Yasue M, Sami M. Oral administration of Cimicifuga racemosa extract attenuates immobilization stress-induced reactions.Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Jan;7(1):15-8.
  7. Ye L, Hu Z, Du G, Zhang J, et al. Antidepressant-like effects of the extract from Cimicifuga foetida L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):683-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.10.013. Epub 2012 Oct 13.

Essential Oils and Lipid Pneumonia

  1. Code of Federal Regulations, 40: Chapter 1, Subchapter C, Part 51, Subpart F, 51100. Last accessed 18 February 2017, and EPA’s Terms of Environment Glossary, Abbreviations, and Acronyms.
  2. Farrow A, Taylor H, Northstone K et al. Symptoms of mothers and infants related to total volatile organic compounds in household products. Arch Environ Health. 2003. 58:633-641.
  3. Millqvist Ternesten-Hasséus E, Ståhl A, et al. Changes in levels of nerve growth factor in nasal secretions after capsaicin inhalation in patients with airway symptoms from scents and chemicals. Environ Health Perspect. 2005. 113: 849-852.
  4. Steinhagen WH and Barrow CS. Sensory irritation structure-activity of inhaled aldehydes in B6C3F1 and Swiss-Webster mice.  Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.1984. 72:495-503.
  5. Luan HF, Ma W, Zhang, X, et al. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models for prediction of sensory irritants (log RD50) of volatile organic chemicals. Chemosphere. 2006. 63(7):1142-1153. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  6. Lamorena RB, Jung SG, Bae GN, et al. The formation of ultrafine particle during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint. J Hazard Mater. 2007 141:245-251. Available at: Last accessed February 21, 2017.
  7. Wolkoff P, Clausen PA, Larsen K, et al.. Acute airway effects of ozone-initiated d-limonene chemistry: Importance of gaseous products Toxicology Letters 2008. 181(3):171-6
  8. Hedenstierna, G., Alexandersson, R., Wimander, K. et al. Int. Arch Occup Environ Heath. 1983. 51: 191. doi:10.1007/BF00377751
  9. Norbäck D, Björnsson E, Janson C, et al. Asthmatic symptoms and volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide in dwellings.  Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1995;52:388-395. Available at: Last Accessed: February 21, 2017.
  10. Låstbom L, Boman A, Johnsson S, Camner P, Ryrfeldt A. Increased airway responsiveness of a common fragrance component, 3-carene, after skin sensitisation–a study in isolated guinea pig lungs. Toxicol Lett. 2003 Nov 30;145(2):189-96. Available at: Last accessed February 21, 2017.
  11. Låstbom L, Boman A, Camner P, Ryrfeldt A. Increased airway responsiveness after skin sensitisation to 3-carene, studied in isolated guinea pig lungs. Toxicology. 2000 Jul 5;147(3):209-14. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  12. Låstbom L, Boman A, Camner P, Ryrfeldt A. Does airway responsiveness increase after skin sensitisation to 3-carene: a study in isolated guinea pig lungs. Toxicology. 1998 Jan 16;125(1):59-66. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  13. Nielsen GD, Larsen ST, Olsen O, Løvik M, Poulsen LK, Glue C, Wolkoff P. Do indoor chemicals promote development of airway allergy? Indoor 2007 Jun;17(3):236-55.  Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  14. Nielsen GD1, Wolkoff P, Alarie Y. Sensory irritation: risk assessment approaches. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;48(1):6-18. Epub 2007 Jan 22.
  15. Hilton I, Dearman RJ, Fielding I, et al. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of eugenol and isoeugenol in mice and guinea pigs. J Appl Toxicol. 1996. 16: 459-464. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  16. Schnuch A, Oppel E, Oppel T et al. Experimental inhalation of fragrance allergens in predisposed subjects: effects on skin and airways. Br J Dermatol 2011. 162: 598-602.
  17. Masamoto Y, Kawabata F, Fushiki T. Intragastric administration of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV8, TRPA1 agonists modulates autonomic thermoregulation. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 May;73(5):1021-7. Epub 2009 May 7. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  18. Canning BJ, Farmer DG, Mori N. Mechanistic studies of acid evoked coughing in anesthetized guinea pigs. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physioil. 2006. 291: R454-463. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  19. André E, Camp B, Materazzi S, et al. Cigarette smoke-induced neurogenic inflammation is mediated by a,b-unsaturated aldehydes and the TRPA1 receptor in rodents. J Clin Invest. 2008. 118:2574-2582. Available at: Last Accessed: February 21, 2017.
  20. Hasani A, Pavia D, Toms N et al. Effect of aromatics on lung mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic airways obstruction. J Altern Complement. Med. 2003. 9:243-249. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  21. Bessac BF and Jordt SE. Breathtaking TRP channels: TRPA1 and TRPV1 in airway chemosensation and reflex control. Physiol. 2008. 23: 360-370.
  22. Stotz SC, Vrients J, Martyn D, et al. Citral sensing by TRANSient receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons. PLoS ONE. 3(5), e2082.
  23. Mandadi S, Nakanishi ST, Takashima Y et al. Locomotor networks are targets of modulation by sensory transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential melastatin 8 channels. 2009: 162, 1377-1397
  24. Lee SP, Buber MT, Yang Q, et al. Thymol and related alkyl phenols activate that hTRPA1channel. Br J Pharmacol. 2008. 153:1739-1749. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  25. Schäfer D and Schäfer W. Pharmacological studies with an ointment containing menthol, camphene, and essential oils for broncholytic and secretolytic effects. 1981. 31: 82-86. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.
  26. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. Available at: Last accessed February 17, 2017.
  27. GOLD 2017 Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD. Available at: Last Accessed February 17, 2017.
  28. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, Hania NA et al. Diagnosis and Management of Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Clinical Practice Guideline update from The American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. Available at: Last Accessed February 17, 2017.
  29. Healthy Environments. Substances that Lead to Asthma.  Available at: Last Accessed February 17, 2017.
  30. Hoffman LR, Yen E, et al. Lipoid pneumonia due to Mexican folk remedy. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005; 159:11.
  31. Costa, et al. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia—a case report. Rev Port Pneumol. 2005;11(6):567–72 (Nov–Dec).
  32. Chaveau M., et al. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: a simple diagnosis? Rev Med Liege. 2005;60(10):799–804 (Oct).
  33. Gondouin A, Manzoni P, et al. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: a retrospective multicentre study of 44 cases in France. Eur Respir J 1996;9(7):1463–9 (Jul).
  34. Bhagat R, Holmes IH, et al. Self-Injection with olive oil. A cause of lipoid pneumonia. Chest. 1995;107(3):875–6 (Mar).
  35. Hirata M, Morita M, Maebou A, Hara H, Yoshimoto T, Hirao F. A case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia probably due to domestic insecticide. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1993;31(10):1317–21 (Oct).
  36. Alaminos Garcia P, Colodro Ruiz A, Menduina Guillen MJ, Banez Sanchez F, Perez Chica G. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia. Presentation of a new case. An Med Interna. 2005;22(6):283–4 (Jun).
  37. Mydlowski T, Malong P, Wiatr E. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia—case report. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2004;72(5–6):214–6.
  38. Brown AC, Slocum PC, Putthoff SL, Wallace WE, Foresman BH. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia due to nasal application of petroleum jelly. Chest. 1994;105(3):968–9 (Mar).
  39. Dawson JK, Abernethy VE, Graham DR, Lynch MP. A woman who took cod-liver oil and smoked. Lancet. 1996;347(9018):1804 (Jun 29).
  40. Doubkováa, M. Doubekb, M. Moulisc, J, et al. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by chronic improper use of baby body oil in adult patient. Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. 2012. Available at: Last Accessed February 17, 2017.
  1. Bouti K, Rhorfi I.A., Mzouri M, Abid A, Alaoui Tahiri K. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by Nigella sativa oil – A case report. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis. 62(4): 701–704
  2. BetancourtSL, Martinez-JimenezS, RossiSE, TruongMT, CarrilloJ, ErasmusLipoid Pneumonia: Spectrum of Clinical and Radiologic Manifestations. Am J Roentgenology. 2010 194(1). Available at: Last Accessed February 17, 2017.
  3. Indumathi CK, Vikram Kumar S, Paul P and Lewin S. Severe Lipoid Pneumonia Following Aspiration of Machine Oil: Successful Treatment with Steroids. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2012;54:197-199
  4. Franck Rahaghi, Ali Varasteh, Roya Memarpour, and Basheer Tashtoush, Teppanyaki/Hibachi Pneumonitis: An Exotic Cause of Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia,” Case Reports in Pulmonology, vol. 2016, Article ID 1035601, 5 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/1035601
  5. Hotta T, Tsubata Y, Okimoto T, Hoshino T, Hamaguchi S, Isobe T. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by herbicide inhalation. Respirology Case Reports, 4 (5), 2016, e00172
  6. Brown C. Endogenous Lipid Pneumonia in Opossums from Louisiana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 1988. 24(2): pp. 214-21
  7. Buda P, Wieteska-Klimczak A, Własienko A, Mazur A, Ziołkowski J, Jaworska J, Kościesza A, Dunin-Wąsowicz D, Książyk J. Lipoid pneumonia — a case of refractory pneumonia in a child treated with ketogenic diet. Praca wpłynęła do Redakcji: 2013. 19.11.2012 r. [Article in Polish]
  8. Venkatnarayan K, Madan K, Walia R, Kumar Jaya, Jain D, Guleria R “Diesel siphoner’s lung”: Exogenous lipoid pneumonia following hydrocarbon aspiration. Lung India. 2014. 31(1):63-66
  9. Nicholson AG, Wells AU, Hooper J, Hansell DM, Kelleher A, and Morgan C. Successful Treatment of Endogenous Lipoid Pneumonia due to Niemann–Pick Type B Disease with Whole-Lung Lavage. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2002. 165(1). DOI:
  10. Tamura A, Hebisawa A, Fukushima K, Yotsumoto H, Mori M. Lipoid Pneumonia in Lung Cancer: Radiographic and Pathological Features. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1998; 28 (8): 492-496. doi: 10.1093/jjco/28.8.492
  11. Hui C-K. Endogenous lipoid pneumonia associated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Singapore Med J 2013; 54(3): e66-e67.
  12. McCauley L, Markin C, Hosmer D. An unexpected consequence of electronic cigarette use. Chest. 2012 Apr;141(4):1110-3. doi: 10.1378/chest.11-1334.
  13. Decocq G, Dol L, Leroy D et al. Lipid pneumonia after aerosol therapy with gomenol in a 4 month old child. Presse Méd. 1996. (25): 994-995.
  14. CF Foundation Recommends Against Using Peppermint Oil in Nebulizer. Available at: Last Accessed February 17, 2017.
  15. Hartley J. Pseudomonas a. in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung: The Inhibition of Bio-encapsulated Pathogens. [Abstract] Available at: Accessed February 17, 2017.

Essential Oils and Surgery

  1. Koch-Weser J, Sellers EM. Drug interaction with coumarin anticoagulants (First of two parts). N Eng J Med 1971;285 : 487-98.
  2. Yip ASB, Chow WH, Tai IT, Cheung KL. Adverse effect of topical methylsalicylate ointment on warfarin anticoagulation: an unrecognised potential hazard. Postgrad Med J 1990;66 : 367-9.
  3. Tisserand R and Young R. Essential Oil Safety. 2nd Churchill Livingston Elsevier. 2014
  4. Buckle J. Clinical Aromatherapy: Essential Oils in Practice. 2nd Churchill Livingstone. 2003.
  5. University of California San Diego Anticoagulation Clinic. Your Guide to Anticoagulant Therapy. Available at: Last Accessed February 21, 2017.

Green Clay Mask

  1. Williams LB, Metge DW, Eberl DD, Harvey RW, Turner AG, Prapaipong P, Poret-Peterson AT.What makes a natural clay antibacterial?  Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Apr 15;45(8):3768-73. doi: 10.1021/es1040688. Epub 2011 Mar 17.
  2. Otto CC, Kilbourne J, Haydel SE. Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice.J Med Microbiol. 2016 Jan;65(1):19-27. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000195. Epub 2015 Oct 27

Essential Oil and Tea References

  1. Khan N, Mukhtar H. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans. Current pharmaceutical design. 2013;19(34):6141-6147.
  2. Bacanlı M, Başaran AA, Başaran N.The antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of citrus phenolics limonene and naringin. Food Chem Toxicol 2015 Jul;81:160-170. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.04.015. Epub 2015 Apr 17.
  3. Forester SC, Lambert JD. Antioxidant effects of green tea. Molecular nutrition & food research. 2011;55(6):844-854. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201000641.
  4. Piccinelli AC, Santos JA, Konkiewitz EC, Oesterreich SA, Formagio AS, Croda J, Ziff EB, Kassuya CA.Antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from Schinus terebinthifolius fruits in a neuropathic pain model.  Nutr Neurosci. 2015 Jul;18(5):217-24. doi: 10.1179/1476830514Y.0000000119. Epub 2014 Mar 2.
  5. Lone J, Yun JW. Monoterpene limonene induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes. Life Sci. 2016 May 15;153:198-206. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.04.010. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
  6. Schmidt E, Bail S, Buchbauer G, Stoilova I, Atanasova T, Stoyanova A, Krastanov A, Jirovetz L.Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha x piperita.Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Aug;4(8):1107-12.
  7. Meamarbashi A. Instant effects of peppermint essential oil on the physiological parameters and exercise performance.Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014 Jan;4(1):72-8.
  8. Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A.The effects of peppermint on exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Mar 21;10(1):15. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-15.
  9. Snoussi M, Noumi E, Trabelsi N, Flamini G, Papetti A, De Feo V.Mentha spicata Essential Oil: Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures of Vibrio spp. Strains. Molecules. 2015 Aug 7;20(8):14402-24. doi: 10.3390/molecules200814402.
  10. Muruganathan U, Srinivasan S. Beneficial effect of carvone, a dietary monoterpene ameliorates hyperglycemia by regulating the key enzymes activities of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Dec;84:1558-1567. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.11.025. Epub 2016 Nov 19.
  11. Fujisawa S, Murakami Y. Eugenol and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;929:45-66.
  12. Baker I, Chohan M, Opara EI. Impact of cooking and digestion, in vitro, on the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon, clove and nutmeg. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013 Dec;68(4):364-9. doi: 10.1007/s11130-013-0379-4.

Dragon Clove and Peppermint Tea References

  1. Jeukendrup AE, Randell R.Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes Rev. 2011 Oct;12(10):841-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00908.x.
  2. Meguro S, Hasumura T, Hase T. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 18;10(3):e0120142. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120142. eCollection 2015.
  3. Huang J, Wang Y, Xie Z, Zhou Y, Zhang Y, Wan X.The anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Oct;68(10):1075-87. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.143. Epub 2014 Jul 30.
  4. Agbaje EO. Gastrointestinal effects of Syzigium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry (Myrtaceae) in animal models. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2008 Jul-Sep;18(3):137-41.
  5. Heber D, Zhang Y, Yang J, Ma JE, Henning SM, Li Z. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea polyphenols reduce visceral fat and inflammation in mice fed high-fat, high-sucrose obesogenic diets. J Nutr. 2014 Sep;144(9):1385-93. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.191007. Epub 2014 Jul 16.
  6. Okuda MH, Zemdegs J, de Santana AA, Santamarina AB, et al. Green tea extract improves high fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation, without affecting the serotoninergic system.J Nutr Biochem. 2014 Oct;25(10):1084-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2014.05.012. Epub 2014 Jul 4.
  7.  Ohishi T, Goto S, Monira P, Isemura M, Nakamura Y. Anti-inflammatory Action of Green Tea. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2016;15(2):74-90. doi: 10.2174/1871523015666160915154443.
  8. Yamashita Y, Wang L, Wang L, Tanaka Y, Zhang T, Ashida H.Oolong, black and pu-erh tea suppresses adiposity in mice via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Food Funct. 2014 Oct;5(10):2420-9. doi: 10.1039/c4fo00095a. Epub 2014 Aug 7.
  9. Pan H, Gao Y, Tu Y.Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols.Molecules. 2016 Dec 7;21(12). pii: E1659.
  10. Meamarbashi A, Rajabi A.The effects of peppermint on exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Mar 21;10(1):15. doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-10-15.
  11. Meamarbashi A. Instant effects of peppermint essential oil on the physiological parameters and exercise performance.
    Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014 Jan;4(1):72-8.
  12. Glade MJ. Caffeine-Not just a stimulant. Nutrition. 2010 Oct;26(10):932-8. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.004.

Carrageenan in Sleep Essence

  1. Tobacman JK. Review of harmful gastrointestinal effects of carrageenan in animal experiments. Environ Health Perspect 2001 109:983-994.
  2. Murad H, Ghannam A, Al-Ktaifani M, Abbas A, Hawat M.  Algal sulfated carrageenan inhibits proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells via apoptosis regulatory genes. Mol Med Rep. 2015 Mar;11(3):2153-8. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2915. Epub 2014 Nov 10.
  3. Prasedya ES, Miyake M, Kobayashi D, Hazama A.Carrageenan delays cell cycle progression in human cancer cells in vitro demonstrated by FUCCI imaging. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 4;16:270. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1199-5.
  4. Ariffin SH, Yeen WW, Abidin IZ, Abdul Wahab RM, Ariffin ZZ, Senafi S.Cytotoxicity effect of degraded and undegraded kappa and iota carrageenan in human intestine and liver cell lines.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Dec 17;14:508. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-508.
  5. Watson DB. Public health and carrageenan regulation: a review and analysis. J Appl Phycol. 2008. 20:505-513.
  6. Yuan H, Song J, Li X, Li N, Dai J (2006) Immunomodulation and antitumor activity of [kappa]-carrageenan oligosaccharides. Cancer Lett 243:228-234.

Safety of Essential Oil in Pets References

  1. Shah SS, Sanda S, Regmi NL, Sasaki K, Shimoda M.Characterization of cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in cats.J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Oct;30(5):422-8.
  2. Elmore L. Essentials: 50 Answers to Common Questions About Essential Oils. 2017. Growing Healthy Homes. Bartletsville, OK.
  3. Khan SA, McLean MK, Slater MR.Concentrated tea tree oil toxicosis in dogs and cats: 443 cases (2002-2012). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2014 Jan 1;244(1):95-9. doi: 10.2460/javma.244.1.95.

Phenoxyethanol References

  1. Environmental Working Group Skin Deep Cosmetics Database. Phenoxyethanol. Available at: Last accessed January 24, 2018
  2. Heidary N, Cohen DE. Hypersensitivity reactions to vaccine components. 2005 Sep;16(3):115-20. Available at: Last accessed January 24, 2018.
  3. Morton WE. Occupational phenoxyethanol neurotoxicity: a report of three cases. J Occup Med. 1990 Jan;32(1):42-5.
  4. European Commission. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. 2013. Available at: Last accessed January 24, 2018.

Coffee Enema References

  1. Lee, M. The Study of Enema Therapy as One of the Detoxification Therapy. Journal of Oriental Neuropsychiatry. 2004; 15(2): 23-36
  2. Lam LKT, Sparnins VL and Wattenberg LW. Effects of Derivatives of Kahweol and Cafestol on the Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase in Mice. J Med Chem. 1987; 30(8):1399-1403.
  3. Lam LKT, Sparnins VL and Wattenberg LW. Isolation and identification of kahweol palmitate and cafestol palmitate as active constituents of green coffee beans that enhance glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse. Cancer Res. 1982;42:1193-1198.
  4. Sparnins VL and Wattenberg LW. Enhancement of glutathione S-transferase activity of the mouse forestomach by inhibitors of benzo[a]pyrene-induced neoplasia of forestomach. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1981;66:769-771.
  5. Lechner P. A reply to Saul Green’s critique of the rationale for cancer treatment with coffee enemas and diet: cafestol derived from beverage coffee increases bile production in rats; and coffee enemas and diet ameliorate human cancer pain in Stages I and II. Available at:

Rue References

  1. Papvassilou MJ. Sur deux cas d’intoxication par la sabine la permèabilité placentaire a l’essence de sabine. Société de Médecine Légale. 1937(15)778-81.
  2. Macht D. The action of so-called emmenagogue oils on the isolated uterine strip. J Pharm Exp Ther. 1913(4) 547-53
  3. Patoir A et al. Acrtion toxique de l’essence de sabine et de l’armoise sur l’organisme. Comptes Rendues Société Biologique. 1938(127)1326-7
  4. Committee for Veterinary Food Products. Rura graveolens, summary report. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. 1999
  5. Cignada C and Laborde A. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion. J Toxicol 2003(41)235-6
  6. Oil of rue: proposed affirmation of GRAS status with specific limitations as direct human food ingredient. Fed. Regist. 1974(39)34215.
  7. Farnsworth NR, Bingel AS, Cordell GA et al. Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents. I J Pharm Sci. 1975(64)535-98Patoir A, Patoir G, Bédrine H, Note sur l’action de l’essence de rue sur l’organisme animal. Comptes Rendues Société Biologique. 1938(127)1324-5
  8. Patoir A, Patoir G, Bédrine H, Note sur l’action de l’essence de rue sur l’organisme animal. Comptes Rendues Société Biologique. 1938(127)1324-5

Castor Oil References

  1. Vieira C, Evangelista S, Cirillo R, Lippi A, Maggi CA, Manzini S (2000). “Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation”. Mediators Inflamm. 9 (5): 223–8. doi:1080/09629350020025737. PMC1781768. PMID 11200362.
  2. Grady H. Immunomodulation Through Castor Oil Packs Journal of Naturopathic Medicine. Volume 7, Number 1 1999
  3. Duke, James A. “Ricinus Communis.” Ricinus Communis L. 9 Jan. 1998. Web. 9 Apr. 2013. (View Abstract).
  4. Arslan GG, Eser I. An examination of the effect of castor oil packs on constipation in the elderly. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011 Feb;17(1):58-62.

Grapefruit References

  1. Schmiedlin-Ren P, Edwards DJ, Fitzsimmons ME, et al. Mechanisms of enhanced oral availability of CYP3A4 substrates by grapefruit constituents. Decreased enterocyte CYP3A4 concentration and mechanism-based inactivation by furanocoumarins. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Nov;25(11):1228-33.
  2. Bailey DG, Dresser GK, Bend JR. Bergamottin, lime juice, and red wine as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity: comparison with grapefruit juice. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Jun;73(6):529-37.
  3. Li P, Callery PS, Gan LS, Balani SK. Esterase inhibition attribute of grapefruit juice leading to a new drug interaction. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Jul;35(7):1023-31. Epub 2007 Mar 28.
  4. Wangensteen H, Molden E, Christensen H, Malterud KE.Identification of epoxybergamottin as a CYP3A4 inhibitor in grapefruit peel. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Feb;58(10):663-8. Epub 2003 Jan 30.
  5. Ho PC, Saville DJ, Wanwimolruk S. Inhibition of human CYP3A4 activity by grapefruit flavonoids, furanocoumarins and related compounds. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2001 Sep-Dec;4(3):217-27.

Stevia References

  1. Brusick DJ. A critical review of the genetic toxicity of steviol and steviol glycosides. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Jul;46 Suppl 7:S83-91. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.002. Epub 2008 May 16.
  2. Planas GM, Kucacute J.Contraceptive Properties of Stevia rebaudiana. Science. 1968 Nov 29;162(3857):1007.
  3. Alvarez. Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction (Vol. 12, 2008)
  4. Kumar RD and Oommen OV. Stevia rebaudiana Bertani does not produce female reproductive toxic effect : Study in Swiss albino mouse. J Endocrinol Reprod 12 (2008) 1: 57-60
  5. Matsui M, Matsui K, Kawasaki Y, Oda Y, et al. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays.Mutagenesis. 1996 Nov;11(6):573-9. Available at: Last accessed: January 2, 2016.
  6. Ritu M, Nandini J.Nutritional composition of Stevia rebaudiana, a sweet herb, and its hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect on patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J Sci Food Agric. 2016 Sep;96(12):4231-4. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7627. Epub 2016 Feb 22.
  7. Misra H, Soni M, Silawat N, Mehta D, Mehta BK, Jain DC. Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Apr;3(2):242-8. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.80779.
  8. Assaei R, Mokarram P, Dastghaib S, Darbandi S, et al. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aquatic Extract of Stevia in Pancreas of Diabetic Rats: PPARγ-dependent Regulation or Antioxidant Potential Avicenna J Med Biotechnol. 2016 Apr-Jun; 8(2): 65–74.

Fennel References

  1. Ostad SN, Khakinegaed B, Sabzevari O. Evaluation of the teratogenicity of fennel essential oil on the rat embryo limb buds culture. Toxicol In Vitro. 2004; 18: 623:27
  2. Albert-Puleo M. Fennel and anise as estrogenic agents. Ethnopharmacol. 1980 (2):337-44
  3. Zondek B and Bergman E. Phenol methyl esters as estrogenic agents. Biochem J. 1938;32: 641-5
  4. Melzig MF, Moller I, Jarry H. New investigations of the in vitro pharmacological activity of essential oils from the Apiaceae. Zeitscrift für Phytotherapie 2003; 24: 112-6.
  5. Tisserand R and Young R. Essential Oil Safety. Churchill-Livingstone Elsevier. 2014.

Basil and Epilepsy

    1. Jaggi, R. K., Madaan, R., and Singh, B. Anticonvulsant potential of holy basil, Ocimum sanctum Linn., and its cultures. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2003;41(11):1329-1333.
    2. Sakina, M. R., Dandiya, P. C., Hamdard, M. E., and Hameed, A. Preliminary psychopharmacological evaluation of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990;28(2):143-150.
    3. Singh, S., Rehan, H. M., and Majumdar, D. K. Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on blood pressure, blood clotting time and pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78(2-3):139-143.
    4. Panda, S. and Kar, A. Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid function in the male mouse. Pharmacol.Res 1998;38(2):107-110.
    5. Ahmed, M., Ahamed, R. N., Aladakatti, R. H., and Ghosesawar, M. G. Reversible anti-fertility effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on sperm parameters and fructose content in rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;13(1):51-59.
    6. Kasinathan, S., Ramakrishnan, S., and Basu, S. L. Antifertility effect of Ocimum sanctum L. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1972;10(1):23-25.
    7. Seth, S. D., Johri, N., and Sundaram, K. R. Antispermatogenic effect of Ocimum sanctum. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1981;19(10):975-976.
    8. Vohora, S. B., Garg, S. K., and Chaudhury, R. R. Antifertility screening of plants. 3. Effect of six indigenous plants on early pregnancy in albino rats. Indian J Med Res 1969;57(5):893-899.
    9. Buch, J. G., Dikshit, R. K., and Mansuri, S. M. Effect of certain volatile oils on ejaculated human spermatozoa. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:361-363.
    10. Joshi, H. and Parle, M. Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(2):133-136.
    11. Moreira-Lobo, D. C., Linhares-Siqueira, E. D., Cruz, G. M., Cruz, J. S., Carvalho-de-Souza, J. L., Lahlou, S., Coelho-de-Souza, A. N., Barbosa, R., Magalhaes, P. J., and Leal-Cardoso, J. H. Eugenol modifies the excitability of rat sciatic nerve and superior cervical ganglion neurons. Neurosci.Lett. 3-26-2010;472(3):220-224.
    12. Varney, E. and Buckle, J. Effect of inhaled essential oils on mental exhaustion and moderate burnout: a small pilot study. J Altern.Complement Med. 2013;19(1):69-71.
    13. Saxena, R. C., Singh, R., Kumar, P., Negi, M. P., Saxena, V. S., Geetharani, P., Allan, J. J., and Venkateshwarlu, K. Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest) in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Evid. Based.Complement Alternat. Med. 2012;2012:894509.
    14. Bhattacharyya, D., Sur, T. K., Jana, U., and Debnath, P. K. Controlled programmed trial of Ocimum sanctum leaf on generalized anxiety disorders. Nepal. Med. Coll. J 2008;10(3):176-179.
    15. Singh, S., Majumdar, D. K., and Rehan, H. M. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum (Holybasil) and its possible mechanism of action. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;54(1):19-26.
    16. Singh, S. Comparative evaluation of antiinflammatory potential of fixed oil of different species of Ocimum and its possible mechanism of action. Indian J Exp. Biol. 1998;36(10):1028-1031.
    17. Singh, S., Majumdar, D. K., and Yadav, M. R. Chemical and pharmacological studies on fixed oil of Ocimum sanctum. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1996;34(12):1212-1215.
    18. Godhwani, S., Godhwani, J. L., and Vyas, D. S. Ocimum sanctum: an experimental study evaluating its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in animals. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987;21(2):153-163.
    19. Singh, S. and Majumdar, D. K. Effect of Ocimum sanctum fixed oil on vascular permeability and leucocytes migration. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1999;37(11):1136-1138.
    20. Mediratta, P. K., Sharma, K. K., and Singh, S. Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of Ocimum sanctum seed oil and its possible mechanism of action. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;80(1):15-20.
    21. Jagetia, G. C. and Baliga, M. S. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study. J Med Food 2004;7(3):343-348.
    22. Kelm, M. A., Nair, M. G., Strasburg, G. M., and DeWitt, D. L. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(1):7-13.
    23. Yanpallewar, S. U., Rai, S., Kumar, M., and Acharya, S. B. Evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum on transient cerebral ischemia and long-term cerebral hypoperfusion. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2004;79(1):155-164.
    24. Tohti, I., Tursun, M., Umar, A., Turdi, S., Imin, H., and Moore, N. Aqueous extracts of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) decrease platelet aggregation induced by ADP and

Eucalyptus and Peppermint Oil in Children

  2. Tisserand R and Young R. Essential Oil Safety. 2014. 2nd Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Lavender oil and Breast Swelling in Young Boys

  1. Henley DV, Lipson N, Korach KS, Bloch CA.Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 1;356(5):479-85.
  2. Carson CF, Tisserand R, Larkman T.Lack of evidence that essential oils affect puberty. Reprod Toxicol. 2014 Apr;44:50-1. Epub 2014 Feb 17.

Ocotea and Diabetes

1. Naranjo P, Kijjoa A, Giesbrecht AM, Gottlieb OR. Ocotea quixos, American cinnamon. J Ethnopharmacol. 1981 Sep;4(2):233-6.

2. Morton, J. 1987. Avocado. p. 91–102. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL

3. Ballabeni V, Tognolini M, Giorgio C, Bertoni S, Bruni R, Barocelli E. Ocotea quixos Lam. essential oil: in vitro and in vivo investigation on its anti-inflammatory properties. Fitoterapia. 2010 Jun;81(4):289-95. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.10.002. Epub 2009 Oct 13.

4. Kellogg AP, Cheng HT, Pop-Busui R. Cyclooxygenase-2 pathway as a potential therapeutic target in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Curr Drug Targets. 2008 Jan;9(1):68-76.

5. Persaud SJ, Burns CJ, Belin VD, and Jones PM. Glucose-Induced Regulation of COX-2 Expression in Human Islets of Langerhans Diabetes 2004; 53 (Suppl. 1): S190–S192.

6. Tabatabaie T, Waldon AM, Jacob JM, Floyd RA, Kotake Y. COX-2 Inhibition Prevents Insulin-Dependent Diabetes in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Treated Mice. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2000: 273(2): 699–704.

Home Remedies for Sinus Pressure

  1. Demirci F, Karaca N, Tekin M, Demirci B. Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial evaluation of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus var. sipyleus essential oil against rhinosinusitis pathogens. Microb Pathog 2018 Sep;122:117-121. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2018.06.025. Epub 2018 Jun 19.
  2. Neher A, Gstöttner M, Thaurer M, Augustijns P, Reinelt M, Schobersberger W. Influence of essential and fatty oils on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells. Am J Rhinol 2008 Mar-Apr;22(2):130-4. doi: 10.2500/ajr.2008.22.3137.

The Supplement You’ve Never Heard of: Fulvic and Humic acid